景观规划中空间机制是揭示如何通过空间手段实现景观功能的重要议题,其内涵为景观中的“格局-过程-功能”相互作用的因果关系.空间机制是反映“格局-过程-功能”机制的系统模拟方法,也是探寻机制内部因果关系的关键.在引入科学哲学中机制及其系统模拟方法的基础上,本研究追溯了因果机制及因果链的分析方法,确定了空间机制存在4种因果模式; 提出通过应用过程追踪法开展因果机制研究,包括因果顺序、过程路径与反馈效应3个部分; 最终提出空间机制的实践途径——情景模拟法,完善“空间机制”所反映的系统模拟方法,最终指导景观生态规划完成空间格局优化.
Spatial mechanism in landscape planning is an important issue to reveal how to realize landscape function through spatial means. Its connotation is the causality of “pattern-process-function” interaction in landscape. Spatial mechanism is a system simulation method to reflect the “pattern process function” mechanism, and it is also the key to explore the internal causal relationship of mechanism. Based on the introduction of mechanism and its system simulation method in philosophy of science, this study traces the analysis methods of causal mechanism and causal chain, and determines that there are four causal modes in spatial mechanism; The process tracing method is proposed to study the causal mechanism, including causal order, process path and feedback effect; Finally, it puts forward the practical approach of spatial mechanism scenario simulation method, improves the system simulation method reflected by the “spatial mechanism”, and finally guides the landscape ecological planning to complete the spatial pattern optimization.